autovistoria predial
25 jul 2019

5 curiosidades sobre autovistoria predial que você precisa conhecer

A autovistoria predial, ou inspeção técnica, é de extrema importância para evitar acidentes, além de evitar a desvalorização do imóvel e o risco de ações judiciais. Seu objetivo principal é avaliar as condições de conservação, segurança e estabilidade da edificação, identificando as intervenções necessárias para manutenção e reparo de problemas.

A não execução desse procedimento pode levar a acidentes graves, que comprometem não somente o condomínio, mas também a segurança das pessoas. Por essa razão, a autovistoria já é prevista por lei em alguns estados, como no caso do Rio de Janeiro.

Vale lembrar que esse trabalho de inspeção deve ser realizado por um profissional capacitado, como um engenheiro ou arquiteto, ou empresa especializada. Vamos conhecer mais detalhes sobre a autovistoria predial e a sua importância?

Descubra a importância de realizar a inspeção técnica nas edificações

A inspeção predial tem por finalidade identificar falhas na manutenção ou conservação do imóvel. De acordo com a norma NBR 5674, da Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT), devem ser checados os seguintes elementos da edificação:

  • estrutura;
  • instalações elétricas e hidráulicas;
  • elevadores;
  • revestimentos internos e externos;
  • impermeabilização;
  • exaustão mecânica;
  • ventilação;
  • coberturas;
  • marquises;
  • telhados;
  • subsolos;
  • esquadrias;
  • climatização.

Essa inspeção é fundamental para evitar a deterioração do imóvel, o que, além de causar depreciação de seu valor, também coloca a vida dos seus usuários em risco. Aliás, em função de problemas relacionados à segurança, a autovistoria já se tornou obrigatória por lei em alguns estados.

No Rio de Janeiro, por exemplo, a Lei da Autovistoria (Lei nº 6400/2013) foi criada após o acidente com o edifício Liberdade, no centro da capital carioca, que desabou e provocou danos a outras construções, incluindo o Teatro Municipal. De acordo com o documento legal, o condomínio que realizou o serviço em 2013 deverá fazer nova inspeção em 2019.

Importante lembrar que a capital do estado também conta com legislação específica estabelecendo a necessidade de vistoria técnica (Lei Complementar nº 126/2013).

A cidade de Porto Alegre, no Rio Grande do Sul, também conta com legislação similar à do Rio de Janeiro (Lei Complementar nº 284). Em São Paulo existe um projeto de lei no mesmo sentido (PL nº 234/2012), ainda em tramitação, que institui o Certificado Estadual de Inspeção Predial.

Embora nos demais estados não exista legislação específica, vale lembrar que, além da NBR 5674, que trata de manutenção nas edificações, outras normas também estabelecem requisitos e diretrizes para promover maior segurança nas construções: NBR 14037, NBR 16280 e NBR 15575.

O cumprimento das regras estabelecidas é fundamental não apenas por se tratar de exigência legal, mas principalmente em função da segurança e redução dos índices de acidentes, que devem ser a prioridade e interesse principal dos gestores de condomínios.

O cuidado é fundamental para vários tipos de edificações, mas especialmente em prédios comerciais, com grande concentração de salas, maior circulação de pessoas e maior complexidade nas instalações.

Confira mais detalhes sobre autovistoria predial

Agora que você já compreendeu a importância da autovistoria, que sempre deve ser feita por profissional ou empresa capacitada para isso, conheça mais alguns detalhes sobre o procedimento.

1. O que deve ser verificado?

Como explicamos acima, toda a estrutura do imóvel precisa ser verificada periodicamente. Supondo que ocorra um acidente em algum elemento que não tenha sido vistoriado e não conste no laudo emitido pelo responsável técnico, esse profissional será responsabilizado. Assim, é fundamental que todos os detalhes da construção sejam inspecionados.

O laudo é um documento que atesta as condições da estrutura do imóvel. Quando, na vistoria, é constatada a necessidade de reparos ou procedimentos de manutenção, o responsável técnico deve indicar o prazo para que as adequações e obras sejam realizadas. A prefeitura local deve ser notificada quando as correções forem finalizadas.

2. Quais são os níveis de inspeção predial?

Existem três níveis de inspeção predial, de acordo com a complexidade e características técnicas da edificação:

  • nível 1: são inspeções de baixa complexidade, normalmente quando se trata de edificações com planos de manutenção muito simples ou inexistentes;
  • nível 2: é o tipo de inspeção realizado em edificações com média complexidade, como imóveis com vários pavimentos, com ou sem plano de manutenção, mas que terceirizam atividades como manutenção de bombas, reservatórios de água, portões, entre outras;
  • nível 3: é a inspeção realizada em edificações com alta complexidade técnica, com padrões construtivos superiores e sistemas mais sofisticados, que utilizam automação. Nesse nível, a autovistoria deve ser feita obrigatoriamente com base na norma ABNT NBR 5674.

3. Quais são os graus de risco da autovistoria?

Grau de risco é o critério de classificação de problemas e falhas detectados na edificação durante a inspeção. São considerados os riscos oferecidos aos condôminos e pessoas que circulam no entorno, ao meio ambiente e ao patrimônio.

Existem três classificações de risco:

  • crítico, quando são constatados riscos contra a saúde e segurança das pessoas e do meio ambiente, além de comprometimento da vida útil do imóvel. Nesse caso, o custo de manutenção e recuperação é mais elevado;
  • a classificação de médio risco ocorre quando é detectada uma perda parcial do desempenho e funcionalidade da construção, mas sem prejuízo à operação direta de sistemas;
  • já o risco mínimo são pequenos danos que não comprometem a segurança ou o valor imobiliário.

4. Quais edificações devem fazer a vistoria?

A autovistoria é obrigatória para construções de três ou mais pavimentos e para aquelas com área construída igual ou superior a 1000 m². Edificações residenciais familiares ou bifamiliares, construções com área inferior a 1000 m², além de todos os imóveis nos primeiros cinco anos após a concessão do Habite-se, estão livres da obrigação.

A penalidade pelo descumprimento da norma recai sobre o condomínio. Assim, é uma obrigação do síndico contratar o serviço.

5. Quem pode fazer a vistoria?

A inspeção deve ser realizada somente por profissionais especializados, sendo engenheiros e arquitetos devidamente registrados nos conselhos de categoria (respectivamente CREA e CAU). Para edifícios comerciais, o ideal é que a vistoria seja feita por uma empresa de engenharia, que possua equipe multidisciplinar e experiência com empreendimentos, para auxiliar na identificação das não conformidades e contribuir com sugestões para resolução de problemas mais complexos.

É importante também que o síndico acompanhe o trabalho de autovistoria predial e ajude a identificar os pontos que demandam maior atenção, além de verificar as informações constantes no laudo técnico e os respectivos prazos para resolução de falhas.

Fique atento aos prazos e à necessidade de realizar o procedimento, pois a segurança de todos os usuários e do próprio patrimônio deve sempre ser uma prioridade. Aproveite e continue a visita em nossa página, para descobrir as vantagens da autovistoria.

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